In order to prevent and to counter discrimination, the European Union’s Racial Equality Directive (Article 15) and the Employment Equality Directive (Article 17) envisage that sanctions must be effective, proportionate, and dissuasive. These three requirements are connected to the aims of sanctions so that the victim is compensated (compensatory aim), the perpetrator is punished (punitive aim) and sanctions contribute to preventing further discrimination by the same perpetrator (preventive aim) and at the societal level (social-preventive aim). In practice, however, sanctions regimes are not considered to be satisfactory for preventing and countering discrimination and for fully meeting the three requirements. This seminar focuses on the sanctions regimes of Southeast Europe for identifying obstacles and challenges as well as for identifying good practices.
Vincenzo Tudisco has been working as a Consultant for the European Network of Equality Bodies (Equinet), as a Postdoctoral Researcher in Comparative Constitutional Law, and as a Teaching Assistant in EU Law (University of Trento). Vincenzo holds a PhD in International Studies and an MA in Law (University of Trento). His research in Comparative Public Law focuses on diversity and non-discrimination, minorities, Equality Bodies, National Human Rights Institutions, access to justice, and constitutional bans on war.